Diarrhea is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality for children under five years in many countries, including Indonesia. Nearly half of all cases of diarrhea caused by rotavirus. Severe diarrhea that can only be prevented by vaccination.
Professor of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Gadjah Mada Sri Suparyati Soenarto, Friday (20/1), in Jakarta, say, from surveillance in eight provinces 2009-2015 is known, half of children under five who need hospitalization diarrhea have diarrhea due to rotavirus.
However, people generally do not think diarrhea is an important issue. Not many people know of diarrhea caused by rotavirus.
Diarrhea is still considered a disease that is not lethal and treatable. In fact, rotavirus diarrhea if not properly handled can cause death. "Diarrhea due to rotavirus can not be solved simply by washing hands or maintain hygiene," said Suparyati.
Rotavirus causes inflammation in the digestive tract and intestines. Rotavirus infects primarily the small intestine and destroys the intestinal tissue surface so that absorption of nutrients from food is disrupted.
Most children are infected with rotavirus diarrhea caused vomiting thereby inhibiting rehydration with oral rehydration therapy. That resulted in dehydration became more severe and can lead to death.
In the world, rotavirus diarrhea due to the death of nearly half a million children under five each year and create millions of children under five others hospitalized. About 95 percent of the number of cases of rotavirus occur in the lower middle income countries in Asia and Africa who have not entered the rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program.
While in Indonesia, according to research in 2009, rotavirus resulted in about 700,000 or one-fifth of clinic visits, 200,000, or half of the total number of inpatient cases. Rotavirus also causes 10,000 or 4 out of 5 deaths of children under five in the country.
So far, the diarrhea caused by rotavirus can only be prevented by vaccination. Two vaccines are recommended World Health Organization (WHO) since 2008 has now worn the countries in the world. In 2009, the WHO recommends the use of two vaccines that are widely.
However, until now the use of two vaccines in Indonesia is still low. In addition to expensive, the vaccine is not yet included in the national immunization program.
Currently, PT Bio Farma (Persero) in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine and the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute in Australia developed a rotavirus vaccine.
According to the Director of Health Surveillance and Quarantine of the Ministry of Health Elizabeth Jane Soepardi, diarrhea caused by rotavirus during the many causes of death.
"Patients with diarrhea due to rotavirus have vomiting that can not be given ORS, should be immediately taken to hospital," he said.
Jane added, if clinical trials are successful, in 2018 rotavirus vaccination will be started gradually. Because domestic production, procurement of rotavirus vaccine not to overburden the budget.
Rotavirus vaccine delivery plan that is part of the plan of new vaccines in the next five years.
Before the rotavirus vaccine in 2018, this year the four vaccine will be given in stages through demonstrative test program. Four vaccine it is, paviloma human vaccine virus, pneumococcus, rubella or German measles, and japanese encephalitis. (ADH)